MPLS can be used for prioritizing traffic, which will be used in JSteward Tech's routing policy. This article works out how to label packets with MPLS and switch according to packets between two host connected by a GRE tunnel.
Before you start
Full MPLS support wasn't present in Linux kernel until lately (4.3 at least), so check your kernel version before trying out things in this article; incompatiable kernels will most likely give out the following two types of errors:
# ip -f mpls route add 101 dev lo RTNETLINK answers: Operation not supported
... which says by itself pretty much. Another type of error looks like this:
# sysctl -w net.mpls.conf.foo4.input=1 sysctl: cannot stat /proc/sys/net/mpls/conf/foo4/input: No such file or directory
This means that you haven't loaded the correct kernel modules (
mpls_router in this case). Userspace tools should get the modules loaded on demand, though; the (most likely non-exhaustive) list for MPLS-related kernel modules are as follows:
Make sure that you have the suitable kernel as well as the correct set of kernel modules--maybe your Enterprise Linux vendor has back-ported things to older kernels, but I wouldn't be able to help in those cases: contact your vendor for support as you pay them for that. If you use Gentoo (and don't use
genkernel all, which is evil), try enabling everything related to MPLS to avoid cryptic errors. To tell if your kernel really supports MPLS, issue the following, and you should see output like this for all of your interfaces:
# sysctl -a --pattern mpls net.mpls.conf.eth0.input = 0 net.mpls.conf.eth1.input = 0 net.mpls.conf.lo.input = 0 net.mpls.platform_labels = 0
Step 1: the GRE tunnel
Let there be two machines: A and B. A has the address
10.128.0.2 and B has the address
10.128.100.2. The following creates a GRE tunnel between the host.
We'll use the interface name
foo4 on both ends. Execute all the following with root:
ip tun a foo4 mode gre remote 10.128.100.2 local 10.128.0.2 ip addr a 10.199.0.1 dev foo4 ip link set foo4 up ip rou a 10.199.0.0/24 dev foo4
ip tun a foo4 mode gre remote 10.128.0.2 local 10.128.100.2 ip addr a 10.199.0.2 dev foo4 ip link set foo4 up ip rou a 10.199.0.0/24 dev foo4
Verify that the hosts can reach each other by pinging the
Step 2: MPLS encapsulation
To encapsulate packets that go through the GRE tunnel with MPLS header, we have to replace the default route with encapsulation rules, and add corresponding decapsulation rules on the other end. Label 100 will be used for traffic that goes from A towards B, while label 101 will be used for traffic that goes from B towards A. Execute all the following with root:
sysctl -w net.mpls.platform_labels=65535 sysctl -w net.mpls.conf.foo4.input=1 ip rou c 10.199.0.0/24 encap mpls 100 dev foo4 ip -f mpls rou a 101 dev lo
sysctl -w net.mpls.platform_labels=65535 sysctl -w net.mpls.conf.foo4.input=1 ip rou c 10.199.0.0/24 encap mpls 101 dev foo4 ip -f mpls rou a 100 dev lo
Packets sent from one peer will be labeled with its corresponding label, and then decapsulated at the other end and delivered to its local interface.
rp_filter needs to be set to relaxed mode or completely disabled for packets to be accepted correctly. Do the following on both machines:
sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter=2
Now the both machines should be able to ping each other, and when capturing the packets with
tcpdump, one will see that the packets have the MPLS header.